Russian affixes in Kola Saami


Affix function number of borrowed affixes


Information and examples are from work by Michael Rießler and Rogier Blokland, as noted below. These forms are used on native stems according to Michael Rießler and Rogier Blokland (personal communication), although no examples of hybrids are given below.


3 pragmatic particles

=že ‘topic’ (no examples of hybrid formations) (Rießler 2009: 392) (see also Rießler 2007: 238)

=dak ‘topic’ (the exact function of the source form is described as “the preceding linguistic expression, say A, represents information, say x, on which a certain thought is based(Post 2006: 495)) (no examples of hybrid formations) (Rießler, personal communication, February 2012)

‑ka ‘hortative’, e.g. vancla‑ka ‘(let him) go!’ (Blokland and Rießler 2011: 15)


1 negative indefinite prefix

nie‑ ‘negative indefinite’, forming expressions like ‘nobody, nowhere, nothing’ from expressions like ‘who, where, what’ (no examples of hybrid formations) (Rießler 2007: 237–238) (see also Blokland and Rießler 2011: 14–15)


1 agent nominalizer

nihk ~ ‑nɨhk ~ ‑nehk ‘agent nouns’, e.g. pastlesnɨhk ‘a thorny shrub’ (from pastel ‘sharp’), v(ɨnn)ājtnihk ‘winegrower’ (Blokland and Rießler 2011: 15; citing Mägiste 1968: 16–17).