Kxoe affixes in Danisi


Affix function number of borrowed affixes


Information and example are from Vossen (2011: 197).


2 verbal derivational markers, which do not form a paradigm in the strict sense (Vossen, personal communication, June 2011), but are nevertheless considered as interrelated here.

=kx’oa ‘inclinative verbal derivation’ (no examples of hybrid formations given)

=|xoa ‘comitative verbal derivational’ (no examples of hybrid formations given). According to Anne-Maria Fehn (personal communication March 2013), this form is common in Danisi’s branch (Shua-Cluster), therefore more likely to be inherited than to be borrowed.


These are two relatively closely related languages. The evidence for borrowing is that there are no cognates documented in other languages of Danisi’s subbranch (Shua), while there are cognate forms documented in various languages of the Kxoe subgroup. According to Anne-Maria Fehn (personal communication March 2013), Vossen’s data are from a single informant whose Danisi is problematic in various respects.