Ilokano affixes in Guina‑ang Bontok


Affix function number of borrowed affixes


Information and examples are from Lawrence Reid (personal communication, January 2012).


3 non-interrelated forms

=to/=nto ‘future’, enclitisized to predicate, used in addition to inherited, preverbal future auxiliary. Only occurs in speech of younger generation (as of early 21st century), e.g. mapan=ka=nto ‘you will go’

mang‑/nang‑ ‘completed aspect, intransitive’, replaced native ma{n,n,ng}‑ +deletion of initial consonant of stem, e.g. nang‑sulbar ‘(they) solved’

taga‑ ‘a person from’ derivation, replaced native i‑; could be from Ilokano or Tagalog, e.g. tagabaryo ‘someone from the neighborhood’