Nunggubuyu affixes in Warndarang


Affix function number of borrowed affixes


Information and examples are from Heath (1978a; 1980a; 1984). 5 suffixes were borrowed


3 noun class prefixes (out of a paradigm of 8 noun class prefixes in Warndarang) (Heath 1980a: 22–25); nouns can occur without prefixes, but usually take one.

(ṛ)a‑ ‘indefinite/non‑human class I’ (also optionally used in place of a human prefix), e.g.a‑waṛiyi ‘Aborigine(s)’, a‑jamaļagu ‘tapsticks’, ra‑waluŋmapython’ (Heath 1980a: 23, 25, 26)

wu‑ ‘non‑human class II’, e.g. wu‑bunjiyu ‘honey’, wu‑ndawaynu ‘words’, wu‑jambaguwnu ‘tobacco’ (Heath 1980a: 25)

ma‑ ‘non‑human class III’, e.g. ma-ḍuŋal ‘spear’, ma‑gamba ‘pearl shell’, ma‑yimbiḍgu ‘cypress’ (Heath 1980a: 25)


2 case markers (out of a paradigm of 5 case markers in Warndarang (Heath 1980a: 26–28)

‑wala ‘ablative’, e.g. wuyulbawala ‘from the tree’ (Heath 1980a: 26), wunaya‑wala ‘from here’, awuni‑wala ‘from there’ (Heath 1980a: 53)

‑miri ‘instrumental’, e.g. maḍuŋamiriby means of spears’ (three examples attested in corpora, but only one example given in Heath 1980a:26–27).