Turkic affixes in Middle Mongolic


Affix function number of borrowed affixes


Information and examples are from Schönig (2003). Note that many of the features concerned may be much older than Middle Mongolic.


3 case markers

*-lUx-A comitative’, based on the Turkic suffix *-lVg for possessive adjectival nouns, as in Turkic *at-lïg ‘with a horse’. The same Turkic suffix appears with a derivative function as a later borrowing in Middle Mongol, e.g. Middle Mongol miqa-liq ‘corpulent’ (from miqa/n ‘flesh’).

*-cAA ‘terminative’, rarely used, may be a borrowing from the Turkic equative in *-cA (‘as’); a connection of the latter with the Mongolic primary ablative in *-cA is also possible but less likely.

*-ki ‘secondary nominative’, has a cognate in Turkic and is probably of Turkic origin


Other Mongolic case suffixes that have been compared with Turkic include the locative in *-A (cf. the Turkic dative in *-GA), the dative (dative-locative) in *-D-A (cf. the Turkic locative in *-DA), and the accusative in *-g (only in Mongol proper, Ordos, Oirat, and Kalmuck, cf. the Turkic accusative in *-G). All of these comparisons involve, however, considerable linguistic problems.


1 plural suffix

*-s ‘plural’ (> Common Turkic *-z)


1 nominal derivation suffix

*-cI ‘actor noun’


1 verbalizer prefix

*-lA- ‘denominal verbalization’, e.g. *ger.le- ‘to marry’ (from *ger ‘house’)