Spanish affixes in Cho’ol


Affix function number of borrowed affixes


Information from Dürr (2012), Dürr (personal communication, 2012) and Vázquez Álvarez (2011). The three adverbial particles borrowed are from a closed class of forms that have a fixed position before the verb stem and after the argument proclitics (Dürr 2012: 38, 92; Vásquez Álvarez 2011: 138–145). In the closely related Chontal there are similar forms, e.g. malah ‘badly’ (Knowles 1984: 223–228).


3 bound adverbial particles

‑mero ‘a little’, e.g. i‑mero‑ña’ty‑añ‑ø (3.ergative‑little‑know‑transitive3.absolutive) ‘He knew a little something (e.g. has a power)’ (Vásquez Álvarez 2011: 437), i‑mero‑jajm‑el (3.ergative‑little‑clear‑nonfinite) ‘It is a little clear’ (Vásquez Álvarez 2011: 492), a‑mero‑tsep‑ø (2.ergative‑little‑cut‑3.absolutive) ‘You will cut’ (Vásquez Álvarez 2011: 211)

‑weñ ‘a lot’, e.g. k‑weñ‑bä’ñ‑añ‑ø (1.ergative‑much‑get.scared‑transitive3.absolutive) ‘It scared me a lot’ (Vásquez Álvarez 2011: 211)

komoñ ‘together’, e.g. la=j‑komoñ‑mel‑ø (pl.inclusive=1.ergative‑together‑do‑3.absolutive) ‘We make it together’ (Vásquez Álvarez 2011: 139)