Turkish affixes in Judeo‑Spanish


Affix function number of borrowed affixes


Information and examples are from Varol‑Bornes (2008). All prefixes are Spanish (except possibly m‑ as part of a phenomenon called mühmele, e.g. Kapará por ti Mapará por ti.)


4 nominal suffixes, nominalizers and noun-noun formation with overlaps

‑oğlu ‘son of’ (noun-noun derivation only), e.g. mamzeroğlu ‘son of a bastard’ (stem originally from Hebrew)

‑cik ~ ‑çik (‑cuk ~ ‑çuk) ‘hypocoristic diminutive’ (noun-noun derivation and adjectivizer), no examples of hybrids given

‑ané ~ ‑aná ‘house of, place for’ (noun-noun derivation and nominalizer) (originally Persian, no clear examples of hybrids given)

‑lik ‘nominalizer for adjectives and others’ (only nominalizer), e.g. semanalik ‘money for one week’


2 privative‑possessive adjectivizers

‑li ~ ‑liya ~ ‑lü ~ -lüya ‘having x’, used on Turkish loans, but also Hebrew loans, and Greek loans, e.g. azlahari ‘making rich’ (stem from Hebrew)

‑siz, ‑siza, ‑suz, ‑suza ‘privative’, often used in spontaneous creations, e.g. azlahasiz ‘unfavorable’ (stem from Hebrew)


A further, uncertain case is ‑tear ‘causative’, which has at least some influence of Spanish, but maybe some Turkish, too.