Aymara affixes in Quechua de Puno


Affix function number of borrowed affixes


Information and examples are from Adelaar (1987) (see also Adelaar 1996: 1328).


1 polyfunctional derivational suffix that attaches to finite verbs, subordinate and nominalized verbs, adjectives, temporal expressions and other adverbial expressions

‑pacha (no meaning or examples given). This is probably the same “totality‑marker” that Uru borrowed from Aymara (Hannß 2008: 9), according to Adelaar (1987: 225) it is extremely frequent.


8 verbal derivational suffixes that occur with certain frequency and are treated together by Adelaar (1987), implying that they form a derivational system. Note also that they are also semantically related, expressing movement and direction.

‑ra‑ ‘repeated action’, ‘singular repetition’, or ‘undoing an action’, e.g. wañurachin ‘he killed [them] one by one’, chayaranku ‘they arrive one by one’. According to Adelaar (1987: 225), in some cases, the suffix ‑ra‑ forms part of complex Aymara loanwords, implying that in most, it is used with Quechua stems

‑naqa‑ ‘diffuse, action, without goal’, e.g. purinaqa‑ ‘go about, behave’ (from puri‑ ‘go, walk’)

‑tata‑ extension or dispersion in various directions’, e.g. hump’itatachi ‘It makes sweat’

‑thapi‑ (opposite of ‑tata‑) ‘concentration, reunion’, e.g. mikhuthapi‑ ‘eat by gathering what is around’ (from mikhu‑ ‘eat’)

‑qa‑ ‘downwards movement’ (part of a system of directionals in Aymara), e.g. ituqa‑ ‘take a pot from the stove’ (from itu‑ ‘carry (a pot) with both hands’)

‑t’a‑ ‘single, short action’, e.g. q’epiyt’aku‑ ‘carry briefly’ (from q’epi‑ ‘carry’)

‑kata‑ ‘crossing an empty space’, e.g. q’epikatarqon ‘he carried [him across the lake]’

‑kipa‑ change of direction’, e.g. q’epikiparqollantaq ‘he carried [him running around the cacti]’


Adelaar (1987: 230) notes that no native suffix has been displaced by borrowed affixes, i.e. these borrowed affixes seem to be gap‑filling.