Persian affixes in Kashmiri


Affix function number of borrowed affixes


The information and examples given below are taken from Koul (2005: 156–158), which is the most recent one of the three descriptions available to me. Koul (2005: 156–158) describes morphological borrowing in a section explicitly about borrowed morphology, and the affixes given below are explicitly described as combining with Kashmiri stems, even though this is in contradiction to an earlier description (Wali and Koul 1996: 265) in at least one case, as noted below. Bhat (1987) and Wali & Koul (1996) list a lot more Persian affixes than Koul (2005: 156–158), but they are less explicit about whether the forms they give are used with Kashmiri stems.


5 derivational prefixes. It is uncertain whether the results are nouns, adjectives or may be both.

be‑ ‘without’, e.g. bepatsh ‘untrustworthy,’ bezuv ‘without life’, bevəti:r ‘without manners’. Wali & Koul (1996: 265) confirm that this prefix is used with native stems.

ba:‑ ‘with’, e.g. ba:darɨm ‘with religious piety’

har‑ ‘every’, e.g. harkã:h ‘every one’, harja:yi ‘every place’

kam‑ ‘little’, e.g. kamza:n ‘a little acquainted person’

bar‑ ‘on’, e.g. barz’av ‘on the tip of the tongue’

Note that there is also bad‑ ‘bad’, e.g. badza:th ‘bad character’, but Wali & Koul (1996: 265) state that this prefix is only used with Persian stems, therefore it is excluded here.


2 suffixes deriving agent nouns

‑gor ‘agent noun’, e.g. g’avangor ‘one who sings’, gindangor ‘one who plays’, natsangor ‘one who dances’

ci: ‘agent noun’, e.g. tabalci: ‘one who plays on tabla’, ə:phi:mci ‘one who is addicted to opium’


2 suffixes deriving abstract nouns

‑gi: ‘abstract noun’, e.g. ga:nɨgi: ‘the act of procurer’, badma:šɨgi: ‘the act of a rogue’

‑i: ‘abstract nouns derived from nouns of agency’, e.g. ma:sṭar ‘teacher’ vs. ma:sṭəri: ‘teachership’, aphsar ‘officer’ vs. aphsari: ‘officership’, da:kṭar ‘doctor’ vs. ḍa:kṭəri: ‘medical practice’, ci:n ‘China’ vs. ci:ni: ‘Chinese’


4 suffixes deriving adjectives from nouns

‑ba:z ‘adjectivizer’, e.g. do:khɨba:z ‘deceitful’, ca:lda:z ‘crafty’

‑mand ‘adjectivizer’, e.g. phə:ydɨmand ‘useful’, akɨlmand ‘wise’, do:latmand ‘rich

‑za:dɨ ‘adjectivizer’, e.g. darza:dɨ ‘an offspring of Dars’

‑da:radjectivizer “with x”’, e.g. ləṭ’da:r ‘with tail’, chiṭida:r ‘with prints’. Koul (2005: 157) gives this as an example of a combination of a Kashmiri prefix and Persian stem, but this is apparently the same as ‑da:r described by Baht (1987: 88), who describes it as “added to nouns, common and productive” and gives examples such as “land lord, leader, honest” which suggest that ‑da:r might be glossed as ‘with’.