Persian affixes in Azari


Affix function number of borrowed affixes


Information and examples are from Dehghani (2000). The affixes given in the following are described as “borrowed prefixes and suffixes which are used frequently in Azari and which can attach to some native stems”, unlike others, which “can only attach to borrowed stems” (Dehghani 2000: 96–97). Dehghani (2000: 87–96) provides a clear description of the morphology, allowing to see how many forms of the grammatical subsystems are borrowed affixes.


2 privative-possessive adjectivizer prefixes. These two function as equivalents for the native suffixes ‑sIz and ‑lI (Dehghani 2000: 97)

ba‑ ‘having the quality specified by the noun’, e.g. baädäb ‘polite’ (from ädäb ‘politeness’), basavad ‘literate’ (from savad ‘literacy’)

bi‑ ‘privative’, e.g. biädäb ‘impolite’ (from ädäb ‘politeness’), bisavad ‘illiterate’ (from savad ‘literacy’)


7 noun‑forming derivational suffixes (out of 10 such forms, i.e. there are 3 native ones, not counting “rarely used derivational suffixes, of which another 2 derive nouns from nouns)

‑ban ‘a person who guards or maintains N as his usual occupation’, e.g. bagban ‘gardener’ (from bag ‘garden’), jängäl‑ban ‘forester’ (from jängäl ‘forest’)

‑baz ‘the person whose occupation involves N’, e.g. gumarbaz ‘gambler’ (from gumar ‘gambling’), gušbaz ‘bird keeper’ (from guš ‘bird’)

‑čA ‘diminutive’, e.g. bagča ‘small garden’ (from bag ‘garden’), käläkča ‘small boat’ (from käläk ‘boat’)

‑dan ‘standard container for N’, e.g. gänddan ‘sugar bowl’ (from gänd ‘sugar’), güldan ‘flower pot’ (from gül ‘flower’)

‑dar ‘the person who owns N’, e.g. eldar ‘the head of tribe’ (from el ‘tribe’), puldar ‘rich’ (from pul ‘money’)

‑Istan ‘a place designed to contain N’, e.g. gäbiristan ‘cemetery’ (from gäbir ‘grave’), gülüstan ‘rose garden’ (from gül ‘flower’)

­‑saz ‘the person who is the maker or repairer of N as his usual occupation’, e.g. čıragsaz ‘lamp maker’ (from čırag ‘lamp’), sahatsaz ‘watch maker’ (from sahat ‘watch’)


1 adjective‑forming derivational suffix (out of 3 such forms, the only two native denominal adjectivizing suffixes are the two mentioned above that are being replaced by the borrowed prefixes, not counting one rarely used derivational suffixes, which derives adjectives from nouns)

‑I ‘pertaining to N, having the quality of N’, e.g. bazari ‘commercial’ (from bazar ‘market’), tarixi ‘historical’ (from tarix ‘history’)