Chukchi affixes in Central Siberian Yupik Eskimo


Affix function number of borrowed affixes


Information and examples are from de Reuse (1994). There are many loanwords and very many borrowed adverbial and conjunctional particles, but only three bound forms were borrowed, one suffix and two clitics. They seem to have a similar distribution ( de Reuse 1994: 288) and similar meanings, therefore they are considered to be paradigmatically related.


3 emphatic enclitics/suffixes

‑am ‘emphatic’, e.g. maatenllaam ‘this time’ (from maaten ‘time’, =llu ‘and’), sanganllaam ‘why now’ (from sangan ‘why’, =llu ‘and’), qayuqham ‘how is it? how did it go?’ (from qayuq ‘how’) ( de Reuse 1994: 364). This form is called an affix, but follows other clitics, such as =llu ‘and’ ( de Reuse 1994: 288). See also Miyaoka (2012: 1549–1550), who analyzes this form as a clitic.

=qun ‘affirmative, emphasis’, e.g. natenqun ‘how (could you think)?’ (from naten ‘how’), esghaqaghnakenqun ‘Look!’ (from esghagh ‘see’), tuugkaatqun ‘Harpoon heads!’ (from tugkagh ‘harpoon head’) ( de Reuse 1994: 270–276, 424)

=Vy ‘emphatic vocative’, e.g. angyaay ‘Hey, boat!’ (from angyagh ‘boat’), qakmaay ‘You out there!’ (from qakma ‘out’), kangsughtungaay ‘I cannot fit through!’ (from kangsugh ‘cannot fit through’) ( de Reuse 1994: 285–287, 424)